The gross output of agriculture is considered both in natural, and in value terms. In natural indicators the gross output of plant growing can be presented by separate culture or group of uniform cultures (grain crops, vegetable cultures, fodder, etc.), and in animal husbandry – production of separate types of production (milk, meat, egg, etc.). The gross output is in kind estimated in centners, tons, pieces, etc.
Two ways of increase in production of agricultural production – extensive (i.e. as a result of expansion of cultivated areas, growth of a livestock of cattle, etc. without updating of a material basis) and intensive, providing increase of an exit of production from unit of area as a result of application of more effective remedies of production, use of achievements of NTP are possible. Opportunities of extensive development are already almost exhausted therefore the intensification (i.e. increase in material and labor inputs at unit of the land area for increase of an exit of agricultural production from each hectare, improvement of its quality, growth of labor productivity, decrease in prime cost of a unit of production) is the most effective and unique way of development of production. The main directions of an intensification are: complex mechanization, chemicalixation of agriculture, land reclamation, increase of installed power per employee of work in agriculture, improvement of the used production technologies. The intensification is carried out on the basis of deepening of specialization of agricultural production, further development of agro-industrial integration.
Security of agriculture with the means of production delivered by the industry. Compliance of level of prices for this industrial output to the level of prices for agricultural raw materials and products of its processing.
In the directions of use the gross output of agriculture belongs as to production of means of production, and production of commodities. That part of production which does not come to consumption, and represents raw materials for industrial processing belongs to means of production. Here include also seeds, forages and others of production, used on the production purposes. Production which comes to direct consumption without preliminary processing, belongs to consumer goods.
In structure of agrarian and industrial complex allocate three spheres: the first – the branches making means of production for agriculture – tractor and agricultural mechanical engineering, mechanical engineering for animal husbandry and a forage production, production of meliorative equipment, mineral fertilizers, the rural production construction, the formula-feed and microbiological industry serving production agriculture, etc.; the second – agriculture (agriculture and animal husbandry) and forestry; the third – the branches processing agricultural raw materials – food, the branches of light industry connected with preprocessing of flax, wool, etc., and also the branches providing preparation, storage, transportation and sales of products of agro-industrial complex.
Acceleration of scientific and technical progress is multystoried, perishable and low-transportable that is connected with a biochemical structure of fruits, root crops and other types of cultures and existence in their structure of a large amount of water. In the course of cleaning, preparation and transportation it is observed considerable losses of mass of production, deterioration of its trade dress and consumer properties. Considering it, scientific researches have to be, are directed on development of perspective ways of storage, casing, transportation and the subsequent completion of production.
Many types of crops are very labor-consuming. It first of all belongs to propashny and commercial crops. For their cultivation it is spent considerably bigger live work, than at cultivation of grain crops. So, at cultivation of vegetable cultures of expense of work on 1ga is 40-60 times higher than crops, than by production of grain crops.
Development and deployment of new cars and technologies in agriculture opens a wide way for effective use of labor, material and financial resources. All this will promote further increasing production of agricultural production and fuller satisfaction of the growing requirements of the population at limited use of resources of society.